The study of climate and how it changes over time is termed Climatology and this helps people better understand the climatic conditions that cause weather patterns and temperature changes over time. On the other hand Climate change is a change in the pattern of weather, and related environment in oceans, land surfaces and ice sheets, occurring over time scales of decades or longer. This field of science (i.e. climatology) grew as scientists became interested in exploring the patterns of climate.
The climate change has already had observable effects on the Earth’s environment and living lifs. Natural lakes are breaking up earlier, plant and animal ranges have shifted and trees are flowering sooner, glaciers have shrunk and ice on rivers. Global Impacts of a 1.1-degree increase are here today in the growing frequency and enormity of extreme weather from droughts, flooding, heatwaves, hurricanes, winter storms and wildfires.
The main reason of climate change is the greenhouse gases emission. Some gases in atmosphere act a bit like the glass in a greenhouse, catch the sun’s heat and holding it from leaking back into space and provoke global warming. Global warming is just the gradual heating of Earth’s surface, oceans and atmosphere, is prompted by mostly human activity, essentially the burning of fossil fuels that force carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and other dangerous greenhouse gases into the Earth’s atmosphere.
Global Climate Change have already had an observable impact on biodiversity at distribution & populations, ecosystem level, the species level, in term of phenology, composition & function. In last couple of decades the average global temperature has increased by 0.74°C to 1.0°C, and patterns rainfall have also changed with the increament of frequency in extreme events. Environmental Change has not been constant on either a spatial or temporal scale and the scope of change, in terms of climate and weather, has also been variable. Change in climate has results on the biophysical environment such as changes in the start and decrease in Arctic sea ice extent, a rise in sea level, length of the seasons, glacial retreat and many more.
The carbon cycle is the process in which carbon atoms continually travel from the atmosphere to the Earth and then back into the atmosphere. Since our Earth and its atmosphere shape a closed environment, the amount of carbon in this earth’s environment does not change. Where the carbon is located — in the atmosphere or on Earth — is constantly in flux. Foundation of all life on Earth comes from Carbon, it is required to form complex molecules like proteins and DNA. It is also found in our Earth’s atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). It helps to regulate the Earth’s temperature, makes all life possible to live, is a key ingredient in the food that assist us, and provides a major source of the energy to power our global economy.
CO2 is the most commonly produced greenhouse gas and Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon dioxide. It is one of the methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in the earht’s atmosphere with the aim of decreasing climate change and it’s effect. CO2 capture and sequestration is a set of technologies that can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from new and existing coal- and gas-fired power plants and large industrial sources. As per report, Carbon capture, use, and storage technologies could capture more than 90% of CO2 emissions from power plants and industrial sources. The Captured co2 can be put to fruitful use in magnify oil recovery and the production of fuels, building materials, and much more, or be stored in underground geologic origination. Carbon capture can also achieve 14 percent of the earth’s greenhouse gas emissions reductions targeted by 2050 and is observed as one of the ways to achieve deep decarbonization in the industrial sector.
Although global warming may bring some localized benefits, such as fewer winter deaths in temperate climates and increased food production in certain areas, the overall health effects of a changing climate are overwhelmingly negative. Climate change affects many of the social and environmental determinants of health – clean air, safe drinking water, sufficient food and secure shelter. Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health stressors, influences human health and disease in numerous ways. Some existing health threats will intensify and new health threats will emerge. Not everyone is equally at risk. Important considerations include age, economic resources, and location.
One of the most visible consequences of a warming world is an increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events. Heat waves, heavy downpours, and major hurricanes have increased in frequency as well as strength in the United States, according to the National Climate Assessment. A measure of the economic impact of extreme weather is the increasing number of billion-dollar disasters, which is shown below. There are various types of weather disasters, some of which are directly influenced by climate change (floods, tropical storms) and some for which a climate influence is not known (tornadoes). Climate change is expected to worsen the frequency, intensity, and impacts of some types of extreme weather events.
Climate hazards are natural events, such as hurricanes, droughts and wildfires, flooding and high winds, which occured in weather cycles. However, we are currently witnessing a scale of destruction and devastation that is new and terrifying. Extreme weather disasters affect all countries, rich and poor. But as we face a future with enhanced risks, it is critical to face the reality of those who bear the burden of our changing climate. Climate change is forcing people from their homes, bringing poverty on top of poverty and increasing hunger. People in poorer countries are at least four times more likely to be displaced by extreme weather than people in rich countries.
The predicted impacts of climate change are becoming increasingly visible. Environment and climate-related risks—including extreme weather events, water scarcity and the failure to adapt and mitigate climate change—are among the top risks the world faces. Policymakers, researchers and the public increasingly recognize the need to address climate-related security risks through cooperation and dialogue. The Global Climate Risk Index 2020 analyses reconfirms earlier results of the Climate Risk Index: Less developed countries are generally more affected than industrialised countries. Regarding future climate change, the Climate Risk Index may serve as a red flag for already existing vulnerability that may further increase in regions where extreme events will become more frequent or more severe due to climate change.
Innovation and investments in environmentally sound infrastructure and technologies can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and enhance resilience to climate change (very high confidence). Innovation and change can expand the availability and/ or effectiveness of adaptation and mitigation options. Adaptation and mitigation are constrained by the inertia of global and regional trends in economic development, GHG emissions, resource consumption, infrastructure and settlement patterns, institutional behaviour and technology (medium evidence, high agreement). Vulnerability to climate change, GHG emissions, and the capacity for adaptation and mitigation are strongly influenced by livelihoods, lifestyles, behaviour and culture.
Emissions of greenhouse gases have a global impact, unlike some other forms of pollution. Whether they are emitted in Asia, Africa, Europe, or the Americas, they rapidly disperse evenly across the globe. This is one reason why efforts to address climate change have been through international collaboration and agreement. Although climate change agreements emphasising carbon emission reduction have been reached through international approaches, the policy measures to meet the obligations and objectives set by such agreements have been implemented at the national or regional level. Here they are supplemented by policy instruments such as efficiency standards and incentives to invest in infrastructure which does not give rise to carbon emissions. Pricing carbon emissions is seen as putting a price on a major external cost from energy production and transformation.
People worldwide are concerned about climate change, but artificial intelligence could help save the environment. AI works by analyzing data patterns to spot trends that can be used to help curb this problem. Climate change has no time to waste: atmospheric CO2 levels are the highest ever, sea levels are rising, and 2019 was the hottest year on record for the world’s oceans. Artificial intelligence may not be a panacea, but it can help us reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
Climate change is now emerging as the transformational challenge of the twenty-first century. Climate change effects are not limited to global warming (increases in surface temperatures), but also include such phenomena as changes in precipitation patterns, sea-level rise, ocean and ice sheet dynamics, ocean acidification, and increasing frequency of extreme weather events. The long range nature of climate change and the inter-relatedness of the causes and effects of climate change place this issue squarely within the purview and ethical responsibility of planners. Our climate change scenarios are designed to be instructive rather than prescriptive. The high degree of uncertainty surrounding the impact of climate change means that the final outcome will likely be different to those outlined.
Climate change will affect the basic elements of life for people around the world—access to water, food production, health, and the environment. Hundreds of millions of people could suffer hunger, water shortages and coastal flooding as the world warms. The investment that takes place in the next 10 to 20 years will have a profound effect on the climate in the second half of this century and in the next. Our actions now and over the coming decades could create risks of major disruption to economic and social activity, on a scale similar to those associated with the great wars and the economic depression of the first half of the 20th century. And it will be difficult or impossible to reverse these changes.
Global climate change has emerged as the most significant environmental, if not societal, issue of our era. The level of warming already in the climate system means that law and policymakers must deal with dual policy imperatives – to manageable the now-unavoidable impacts of climate change, whilst also avoiding the unmanageable impacts of further warming. There is also increasing recognition that there will be impacts ‘beyond adaptation’, that must be compensated for. This seminar will explore cutting-edge public policy, legal, and scientific challenges involved in assessing and reducing the causes of climate change, and adapting to projected impacts.
The ocean plays a central role in regulating the Earth’s climate. Oceans are a global force of nature that form the foundation of the blue planet on which we live. They cover 71% of our planet’s surface and make up 95% of all the space available to life. They are a life-support system for Earth and a global commons that provide us with free goods and services, from the food we eat to the oxygen we breathe. The oceans also regulate the global climate; they mediate temperature and drive the weather, determining rainfall, droughts, and floods. They are also the world’s largest store of carbon, where an estimated 83% of the global carbon cycle is circulated through marine waters. As the climate responds to decades of increasing carbon emissions, the store of energy and heat from the atmosphere builds up in the ocean. If we reach a tipping point, we will likely see more extreme weather events, changing ocean currents, rising sea levels and temperatures, and melting of sea ice and ice sheets—all of which aggravate the negative impacts of overfishing, illegal fishing, pollution, and habitat degradation.
Climate change is the variation in the state of the climate, directly or indirectly due to human activities that alter the composition of the atmosphere. It is caused mainly by global warming and results in the melting of the polar ice caps, rising sea level and extreme weather conditions, among many other negative effects. The links between climate change and sustainable development are strong. Poor and developing countries, particularly least developed countries, will be among those most adversely affected and least able to cope with the anticipated shocks to their social, economic and natural systems.
Changes in climate can result in impacts to local air quality. Atmospheric warming associated with climate change has the potential to increase ground-level ozone in many regions, which may present challenges for compliance with the ozone standards in the future. The impact of climate change on other air pollutants, such as particulate matter, is less certain, but research is underway to address these uncertainties. Emissions of pollutants into the air can result in changes to the climate. Ozone in the atmosphere warms the climate, while different components of particulate matter (PM) can have either warming or cooling effects on the climate.
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas: a gas that absorbs and radiates heat. Warmed by sunlight, Earth’s land and ocean surfaces continuously radiate thermal infrared energy (heat). Unlike oxygen or nitrogen (which make up most of our atmosphere), greenhouse gases absorb that heat and release it gradually over time, like bricks in a fireplace after the fire goes out. Without this natural greenhouse effect, Earth’s average annual temperature would be below freezing instead of close to 60°F. But increases in greenhouse gases have tipped the Earth’s energy budget out of balance, trapping additional heat and raising Earth’s average temperature.
Renewable energy is one of the most effective tools we have in the fight against climate change, and there is every reason to believe it will succeed. Wind and solar energy have experienced remarkable growth and huge cost improvements over the past decade with no signs of slowing down. The shift to renewable sources, however, needs to happen faster, not just in power generation but in heating, buildings and transport, to check the rise in global temperatures. Renewables could supply four-fifths of the world’s electricity by 2050, massively cutting carbon emissions and helping to mitigate climate change. But solar and wind power have to be fully integrated, with sustainable bioenergy providing another key part of the mix.
The enormity of global warming can be daunting and dispiriting. What can one person, or even one nation, do on their own to slow and reverse climate change? For many of communities, climate change is a fight for life itself. And for many countries around the world, including the Europe,, America, Asia climate change is having more and more of a negative impact on people. As a country with the wealth and power to really tackle climate change, it’s never been more important to demand that our leaders act.